Empennage sizing with the tail volume complemented with a method for dorsal fin layout
Purpose: Provide good values for the tail volume coefficient and the lever arm as a percentage of the fuselage length. Provide a statistical method for dorsal fin layout. – Methodology: Based on an understanding of flight physics, the statistical correlation of real aircraft parameters is investigated. This is based on the firm conviction that high fidelity parameters for future aircraft need a checked against parameters of existing successful aircraft. – Findings: Typical tail volume
... ts are between 0.5 and 1.0 for the horizontal tail and between 0.03 and 0.08 for the vertical tail depending on aircraft category. Empennage statistics have clear trends. The often weak correlation shows that aircraft design allows for sufficient designer's choice. Only a minority of aircraft feature a dorsal fin. Designers see it as an added surface rather than as part of the vertical tail. It is used to limit the hypothetical risk of vertical tail stall due to high sideslip angles. – Research Limitations: Results obtained from statistics are close to reality, but not a proof to fulfill requirements. – Practical Implications: Methods from the paper can be used for quick initial sizing of a vertical tail with or without dorsal fin or sizing of a horizontal tail. These results can also be used as good starting values for optimization tools in aircraft design. – Originality: Estimation of the tail lever arm is necessary for sizing with the tail volume coefficient, but had not been investigated to any detail. A method for the layout of dorsal fins was missing.