Getting a-Round Guarantees: Floating-Point Attacks on Certified Robustness [article]

Jiankai Jin, Olga Ohrimenko, Benjamin I. P. Rubinstein
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Adversarial examples pose a security risk as they can alter a classifier's decision through slight perturbations to a benign input. Certified robustness has been proposed as a mitigation strategy where given an input x, a classifier returns a prediction and a radius with a provable guarantee that any perturbation to x within this radius (e.g., under the L_2 norm) will not alter the classifier's prediction. In this work, we show that these guarantees can be invalidated due to limitations of
more » ... ing-point representation that cause rounding errors. We design a rounding search method that can efficiently exploit this vulnerability to find adversarial examples within the certified radius. We show that the attack can be carried out against several linear classifiers that have exact certifiable guarantees and against neural network verifiers that return a certified lower bound on a robust radius. Our experiments demonstrate over 50 classifiers, up to 35 a 9 certified radius was verified by a prominent bound propagation method. We also show that state-of-the-art random smoothed classifiers for neural networks are also susceptible to adversarial examples (e.g., up to 2 CIFAR10)-validating the importance of accounting for the error rate of robustness guarantees of such classifiers in practice. Finally, as a mitigation, we advocate the use of rounded interval arithmetic to account for rounding errors.
arXiv:2205.10159v1 fatcat:t34aqd4h4nh7pljx4orinnmzou