Blind Source Separation in Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Electrocardiograms Using Block-Term Tensor Decomposition with Lwner Constraints
IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics
The estimation of the atrial activity (AA) signal from electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings is an important step in the noninvasive analysis of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. This problem admits a blind source separation (BSS) formulation that has been recently posed as a tensor factorization, using the Hankel-based block term decomposition (BTD), which is particularly well suited to the estimation of exponential models like AA
... ng AF. However, persistent forms of AF are characterized by short R-R intervals and very disorganized (or weak) AA, making it difficult to model AA directly and perform its successful extraction through Hankel-BTD. To overcome this drawback, the present work proposes a tensor approach to estimate QRS complexes and subtract them from the ECG, resulting in a signal that, ideally, only contains the AA. Such an approach tackles the problem of blind separation of rational functions, which models QRS complexes explicitly. The data tensor admitting a BTD is built from Lwner matrices generated from each lead of the observed ECG. To this end, this paper formulates a variant of the recently proposed constrained alternating group lasso (CAGL) algorithm that imposes Lwner structure on the decomposition blocks. This is done by performing an orthogonal projection, which we explicitly derive, at each iteration of CAGL. Results from experiments with synthetic data show the consistency of the proposed Lwner-constrained AGL (LCAGL) in extracting the desired sources. Experimental results obtained on a population of 20 patients suffering from persistent AF show that the proposed variant outperforms other tensor-based methods in terms of atrial signal estimation quality from ECG records as short as a single heartbeat.