Levofloxacin prophylaxis for pediatric leukemia patients: Longitudinal follow‐up for impact on health care‐associated infections
Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) cause morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients with leukemia. Antibiotic prophylaxis during periods of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia may reduce the incidence of BSIs. A levofloxacin prophylaxis guideline was implemented for pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over 4 years (2 years pre and 2 years post implementation) of the practice guideline to assess the impact
... on central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and BSI events. Secondary outcomes included incidence of Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea, bacteremia due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), and bacteremia due to levofloxacin nonsusceptible organisms. STATA was used for data analysis. Sixty-three and 72 patients met inclusion criteria for the pre- and postimplementation cohorts, respectively. Demographics were similar between the groups. We observed 60 BSI events in the pre-group versus 49 events in the post-group (p = .1). Bacteremia due to Gram-negative rods (risk ratio [RR] 0.37 [0.21, 0.66], p < .001) and National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) CLABSIs (RR 0.62 [0.44, 0.89], p = .01) were significantly reduced in the postimplementation group. The incidences of C. difficile-associated diarrhea and MDRO bacteremia were similar between groups. However, we observed an increase in the incidence of BSI due to Gram-negative rods that were nonsusceptible to levofloxacin (RR 3.38 [0.72, 6.65], p < .001). Following implementation of a levofloxacin prophylaxis guideline, we observed a significant decrease in BSIs due to Gram-negative rods and NHSN CLABSIs. Vigilant monitoring of outcomes post guideline implementation is critical to track emergence of resistant organisms.