Effect of Sulfadimethoxine, Oxytetracycline, and Streptomycin Antibiotics in Three Types of Crop Plants—Root, Leafy, and Fruit
(1) Background: Plants act as the natural sink for a variety of toxins in the environment, including veterinary antibiotics (VAs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the uptake and fate of sulfadimethoxine (SDZ), oxytetracycline (OTC), and streptomycin (STR) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota), and pepper (Capsicum annum) grown in VAs amended soil. (2) Methods: 0, 50, and 100 mg kg−1 VA laced manure was applied in a sandy clay loam soil. (3) Results: 30-d (lettuce)
... s: 30-d (lettuce) and 60-d (carrot and pepper) greenhouse experiment showed that SDZ and OTC were taken up by all three plants, with concentrations in plant tissue ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mg kg−1 dry weight. The concentration of VAs in plant tissues increased with a corresponding increase of antibiotics in manure. The highest plant tissue concentrations were found in carrot and lettuce, followed by pepper. An increase in NADPH P450 reductase and glutathione-s-transferase enzyme activity with increasing SDZ and OTC concentration was evident, signifying the induction of the detoxification process. The activity of plant detoxification enzymes under STR treatment was found not to be significantly different from control. (4) Conclusions: These results raise potential human health concerns of consuming low levels of antibiotics from produce grown on manure-amended soils. The result indicates that SDZ, OTC, and STR antibiotics posed high, medium, and low acute ecological risks in lettuce, carrot, and pepper plants when grown in sandy clay loam soil.