Lattice QCD at nonzero isospin chemical potential

William Detmold, Kostas Orginos, Zhifeng Shi
2012 Physical Review D  
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at non-zero isospin chemical potential is studied in a canonical approach by analyzing systems of fixed isospin number density. To construct these systems, we develop a range of new algorithms for performing the factorially large numbers of Wick contractions required in multi-hadron systems. We then use these methods to study systems with the quantum numbers of up to 72 $\pi^+$'s on three ensembles of gauge configurations with spatial extents $L\sim$ 2.0, 2.5 and
more » ... im$ 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 fm, and light quark masses corresponding to a pion mass of {390 MeV}. The ground state energies of these systems are extracted and the volume dependence of these energies is utilized to determine the two- and three- body interactions amongst $\pi^+$'s. The systems studied correspond to isospin densities of up to $\rho_I\sim 9\ {\rm fm}^{-3}$ and probe isospin chemical potentials, $\mu_I$, in the range $m_\pi\ \lsim \mu_I\ \lsim 4.5\ m_\pi$, allowing us to investigate aspects of the QCD phase diagram at low temperature and for varying isospin chemical potential. By studying the energy density of the system, we provide numerical evidence for the conjectured transition of the system to a Bose-Einstein condensed phase at $\mu_I\ \gsim m_\pi$.
doi:10.1103/physrevd.86.054507 fatcat:4wpo37qiyfgg3exz3mcuz4xoae