Appropriateness of using vitamin K for the correction of INR elevation secondary to hepatic disease in critically ill patients: An Observational Study
Background: Hepatic diseases have been associated with an increased risk of coagulopathy and increased odds of secondary thrombosis and bleeding. Using vitamin K for correction of coagulopathy in critically ill patients is controversial with limited evidence.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy as well as safety of vitamin K in correction of international normalized ratio (INR) elevation secondary to liver disease in critically ill patients.Setting: Tertiary teaching hospital in Saudi
... in Saudi Arabia.Method: A retrospective case-control study of adult ICU patients with coagulopathy secondary to liver disease. A total of 98 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on vitamin K administration to correct INR elevation. differences. The propensity score was generated based on disease severity scores to adjust group.Main outcomes: The primary outcome was to evaluate the association between vitamin K administration and the incidence of new bleeding events in critically ill patients with INR elevation secondary to liver disease. Secondary outcomes were to evaluate the incidence of a new thrombotic event and the degree of INR correction with vitamin K. Results: Forty-seven patients (48%) received vitamin K during the study period. The incidence of the new bleeding event was not statistically different between groups (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.28-21.67, P=0.42). Delta of INR reduction was observed with a median of 0.63 when the first dose is given (p-value: <.0001). However, other subsequent doses of vitamin K were not statistically significant.Conclusion: Using vitamin K for INR correction in critically ill patients with coagulopathy secondary to liver disease was not associated with a lower incidence of new bleeding events. Vitamin K was efficient in reducing INR level at the first dose, other subsequent doses were not.Impacts on practice: 1. Routine use of vitamin K to correct PT/INR in critically ill patients with liver disease may need be re-evaluated.2. If the initial dose of vitamin K does not reverse INR elevation, subsequent doses may not have any effect.3. Using vitamin K to correct INR was not associated with a lower incidence of new bleeding events nor RBCs/Platelets transfusion than patients who did not receive it.