CLASSIC'CL: An Integrated ILP System [chapter]

Christian Stolle, Andreas Karwath, Luc De Raedt
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
A novel inductive logic programming system, called Classic'cl is presented. Classic'cl integrates several settings for learning, in particular learning from interpretations and learning from satisfiability. Within these settings, it addresses predictive, descriptive and probabilistic modeling tasks. As such, Classic'cl (C-armr, cLAudien, icl-S(S)at, ICl, and CLlpad) integrates several well-known inductive logic programming systems such as Claudien, Warmr (and its extension C-armr), ICL,
more » ... and CLLPAD. We report on the implementation, the integration issues as well as on some experiments that compare Classic'cl with its predecessors. 1. query is true if and only if the head of the clause is empty, i.e., if n = 0. This constraint is built-in in systems that search for frequent queries such as Warmr and C-armr. 2. covers(e) is true for an interpretation e ∈ E if and only if the query ← b 1 ∧ · · · ∧ b m succeeds in e, i.e. if there is a substitution θ such that {b 1 θ, . . . , b m θ} ⊆ e; e.g., the clause ← drinks(X), beer(X) covers the interpretation {drinks(duvel), beer(duvel), drinks(vodka), liquor(vodka)}. This constraint (together with frequency) is often used in the case of queries (i.e., where n = 0) in systems such as Warmr, C-armr, and Farmr. For clauses, it sometimes used in clausal discovery systems such as Claudien and CLLPAD. satisf ies(e) is true if and only i.e., if and only if ∀θ: {b 1 θ, . . . , b m θ} ⊆ e → {h 1 θ, . . . , h n θ} ∩ e = ∅, e.g. the clause beer(X) ← drinks(X) does not satisfy the interpretation {drinks(duvel), beer(duvel), drinks(vodka), liquor(vodka)} but does satisfy {drinks(duvel), beer(duvel)} 4. xor(e) is true if and only if for any two h i = h j there exist no substitutions θ 1 and θ 2 such that {b