Translation and validation of the Korean version of the clinical frailty scale in older patients
Background Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome that leads to an increase in vulnerability. Previous studies have suggested that frailty is associated with poor health-related outcomes. For frailty screening, the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is a simple tool that is widely used in various translated versions. We aimed to translate the CSF into Korean and evaluated its contents and concurrent validity. Methods Translations and back-translations of the CFS were conducted independently. A
... pendently. A multidisciplinary team decided the final CFS-K. Between August 2019 and April 2020, a total of 100 outpatient and inpatient participants aged ≥65 years were enrolled prospectively. The clinical characteristics were evaluated using the CFS-K. The CFS-K scores were compared with those of other frailty screening tools using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation. The area under curve (AUC) for identifying the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) grade 3 or more was calculated for the CFS-K and other screening tools. Results The mean age of the participants was 76.5 years (standard deviation [SD], 7.0), and 63 (63%) participants were male. The mean CFS-K was 4.8 (SD, 2.5). Low body mass index (p = 0.013) and low score on the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with high CFS-K scores, except for those assigned to scale 9 (terminally ill). The CFS-K showed a significant correlation with other frailty screening tools (R = 0.7742–0.9190; p < 0.01), except in the case of those assigned to scale 9 (terminally ill). In comparison with other scales, the CFS-K identified ECOG PS grade 3 or more with the best performance (AUC = 0.99). Patients assigned to scale 9 on the CFS-K (terminally ill) had similar frailty scores to those assigned to scale 4 (vulnerable) or 5 (mildly frail). Conclusions In conclusion, the CFS-K is a valid scale for measuring frailty in older Korean patients. The CFS-K scores were significantly correlated with the scores of other scales. To evaluate the predictive and prognostic value of this scale, further larger-scale studies in various clinical settings are warranted.