Characteristics and long-term outcomes of childhood glaucoma: a retrospective-cohort study
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with childhood glaucoma. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with childhood glaucoma who visited the glaucoma clinics at the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health and the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between January 2008 and January 2018. The diagnosis was based on the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network classification. We recorded their clinical characteristics and
... cteristics and requirement of any glaucoma interventions. Results: A total of 691 eyes from 423 patients were included in this study. The patients predominantly comprised boys. The average follow-up duration was 71.3±63.8 months. The mean age at presentation was 3.9±4.4 years. Most patients presented with a high initial intraocular pressure (IOP) of 28.5±11.2 mmHg. Glaucoma associated with non-acquired ocular anomalies (22.9%) was the most common subtype, followed by primary congenital glaucoma (20.8%). We recorded a family history of glaucoma in 6.4% of patients. Most patients had bilateral glaucoma (63.4%) and required at least one intervention (51.5%). The average IOP at the latest follow-up visit was 19.1±10.8 mmHg. All glaucoma types had significantly lower IOP, compared to that at their baselines (all p<0.001). Moreover, most patients had an unfavourable visual acuity (49.5%) at their latest visit. Conclusions: Secondary glaucoma associated with non-acquired ocular anomalies is the most common subtype of glaucoma. All subtypes, including primary glaucoma, were sporadic. The majority of patients had unfavourable visual outcomes. These real-world findings are fundamental to acquire a better understanding of childhood glaucoma.