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This generalization study determines if open advertisements for brands differing in familiarity can be successfully used as a cross cultural advertising tool. Open ads do not guide consumers towards a ready-made interpretation and require more effort to decipher than closed ads. The study was performed in five European nationalities and the United States. A randomized 4-group design was used with ten advertisements, each in four different versions, with attitude towards the ad as the dependentdoi:10.9768/0022.01-2.048 fatcat:qgxpbb5zxbdybddstfyxuhmm44