Electromagnetic Induction from Europa's Ocean and the Deep Interior [chapter]

Krishan K. Khurana, Margaret G. Kivelson, Kevin P. Hand, Christopher T. Russell
An overview of the current status of research on the electromagnetic induction sounding of Europa's ocean and deep interior is provided. After briefly reviewing the history of electromagnetic induction methods used for sounding the interiors of Earth and the Moon, we provide a basic theoretical foundation of electromagnetic wave theory for spherical bodies. Next, evidence of electromagnetic induction field in the magnetic field data from the Galileo spacecraft is presented. Results from several
more » ... esults from several modeling studies and the uncertainties in the fitted parameters are presented. Sources of systematic and random noise in the observations and their effect on the induction signature are highlighted next. The implications of the derived ocean conductivities for the composition of the europan ocean are discussed. Finally, we examine future prospects for multiple-frequency sounding of Europa's interior from orbiting spacecraft and observatories on the surface of Europa.
doi:10.2307/j.ctt1xp3wdw.30 fatcat:2qxwkgdd2vcubppsi6nzknchre