Genetic diversity of maize landraces from the South-West of France [article]

Yacine Diaw, Christine Tollon-Cordet, Alain Charcosset, Stéphane D Nicolas, Delphine Madur, Joëlle Ronfort, Jacques David, Brigitte Gouesnard
2020 biorxiv/medrxiv   pre-print
From the 17th century until the arrival of hybrids in 1960s, maize landraces were cultivated in the South-West of France, a traditional region for maize cultivation. A set of landraces were collected in this region between the 1950s and 1980s and were then conserved ex situ in a germplam collection. Previous studies using molecular markers on approx. twenty landraces fo this region showed that they belonged to a Pyrenees-Galicia Flint genetic group and originated from hybridization between
more » ... zation between Caribbean and Northern Flint germplasms introduced in Europe. In this study, we assessed the structure and genetic diversity of 194 SWF maize landraces to elucidate their origin, using a 50K SNP array and a bulk DNA approach. We identified two weakly differentiated genetic groups, one in the Western part and the other in the Eastern part. We highlighted the existence of a longitudinal gradient along the SWF area that was probably maintained through the interplay between genetic drifts and restricted gene flows, rather than through differential climatic adaptation. The contact zone between the two groups observed near the Garonne valley may be the result of these evolutionnary forces. We found only few significant cases of hybridization between Caribbean and Northern Flint germplasms in the region. We also found gene flows from various maize genetic groups to SWF landraces. Thus, we assumed that SWF landraces had a multiple origin with a slightly higher influence of Tropical germplasm in the West and preponderance of Northern Flint germplasm in the East.
doi:10.1101/2020.08.17.253690 fatcat:b345fylkkjgwbbyynhrtpvww3i