Parameter Optimization for Real World ENSO Forecast in an Intermediate Coupled Model
Monthly Weather Review
We performed parameter estimation in the Zebiak-Cane model for the real-world scenario using the approach of ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation and the observational data of sea surface temperature and wind stress analyses. With real-world data assimilation in the coupled model, our study shows that model parameters converge toward stable values. Furthermore, the new parameters improve the real-world ENSO prediction skill, with the skill improved most by the parameter of the
... meter of the highest climate sensitivity (gam2), which controls the strength of anomalous upwelling advection term in the SST equation. The improved prediction skill is found to be contributed mainly by the improvement in the model dynamics, and second by the improvement in the initial field. Finally, geographic-dependent parameter optimization further improves the prediction skill across all the regions. Our study suggests that parameter optimization using ensemble data assimilation may provide an effective strategy to improve climate models and their real-world climate predictions in the future.