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We present a way of building ontologies that proceeds in a bottom-up fashion, defining concepts as clusters of concrete XML objects. Our rough bottom-up ontologies are based on simple relations like association and inheritance, as well as on value restrictions, and can be used to enrich and update existing upper ontologies. Then, we show how automatically generated assertions based on our bottom-up ontologies can be associated with a flexible degree of trust by nonintrusively collecting userdoi:10.1109/tkde.2007.23 fatcat:vhzuwgttyvgmvaionung5vht2i