THE SOLAR ABUNDANCE PROBLEM: THE EFFECT OF THE TURBULENT KINETIC FLUX ON THE SOLAR ENVELOPE MODEL
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Recent 3D-simulations have shown that the turbulent kinetic flux (TKF) is significant. We discuss the effects of TKF on the size of convection zone and find that the TKF may help to solve the solar abundance problem. The solar abundance problem is that, with new abundances, the solar convection zone depth, sound speed in the radiative interior, the helium abundance and density in the convective envelope are not in agreement with helioseismic inversions. We have done Monte Carlo simulations on
... lar convective envelope models with different profile of TKF to test the effects. The solar abundance problem is revealed in the standard solar convective envelope model with AGSS09 composition, which shows significant differences (∼ 10 from the helioseicmic inversions, but the differences in the model with old composition GN93 is small (∼ 0.5 different imposed TKF, it is found that the density profile is sensitive to the value of TKF at the base of convective envelope and insensitive to the structure of TKF in the convection zone. Required value of turbulent kinetic luminosity at the base is about -13 the 3D-simulations, this value is plausible. This study is for the solar convective envelope only. The evolutionary solar models with TKF are required for investigating its effects on the solar interior structure below the convection zone and the whole solar abundance problem, but the profile of TKF in the overshoot region is needed.