The Impact of Hepatic Cirrhosis on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the United States: A Nationwide Analysis
James R Pellegrini, Rezwan Munshi, Pranavi Patel, Brandon Pelletier, Palakkumar Patel, Paul Mustacchia
We aimed to study the impact of Hepatic Cirrhosis (HC) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our study is a retrospective cohort study using the 2016-2017 National Readmission Database (NRD). NRD is part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), organized and supported by means of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Patients were included if they were 18 years or older and had a principal diagnosis of COPD based on International Classification of
... es, Tenth Revision (ICD-10-CM) codes and had a secondary diagnosis of HC. A total of 505,004 patients were included in the study with a diagnosis of COPD, 6196 (1.23%) of whom had HC. HC was found to be more common amongst male patients between the ages of 50 and 65 years. Medicare beneficiaries with high comorbidity burden, lower socioeconomic status, and those who received treatment in a large urban teaching hospital also had higher rates of HC. Patients with HC and COPD correlated to an increase of in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 2.21, p<0.001) and 30-day hospital readmission rate (aOR: 1.23, p<0.001) compared with patients without HC. The in-hospital mortality rate was higher during readmission compared with index admissions (5.01% versus 2.16%; p<0.001). In addition, HC was associated with higher morbidity including prolonged mechanical ventilation (aOR: 1.39, p<0.001), resource utilization with prolong length of stay (LOS) (adjusted mean difference (aMD: 0.51, p<0.001), higher total hospitalization charges (aMD: 4967, p<0.001), and costs (aMD: 1200, p<0.001). Both patient groups had similar odds of being intubated (aOR: 1.18, p-0.13), tracheostomy (aOR: 0.81, p-069) and bronchoscopy rates (aOR: 1.27, p-0.36). The most common causes of hospital readmission were found to be COPD with acute exacerbation (19.7%), sepsis, unspecified organism (6.0%, acute and chronic respiratory failure with hypoxia (4.2%), acute on chronic systolic heart failure (3.9%), and hepatic failure, unspecified coma (3.1%). Various autonomous prognosticators of readmission were sex (particularly female), alcohol dependence, LOS greater than 7 days, lower comorbidity burden, and discharge to short term hospital or against medical advice. On the other hand, males, patients without a history of alcohol dependence, greater comorbidity burden, and LOS fewer than 3 days, were less likely to be readmitted. We found that HC is related to higher in-hospital mortality, LOS, increased mechanical ventilation, resource utilization with prolonged LOS, hospital costs, odds of intubation, and tracheostomy and bronchoscopy rates. Our study aims to shed light on the impact of HC on COPD in hopes to improve future management.