Assessment of Complex Terminal Groundwater Aquifer for Different Use of Oued Souf Valley (Algeria) Using Multivariate Statistical Methods, Geostatistical Modeling, and Water Quality Index
This research aims to assess the hydrogeochemical evolution of the groundwater in Oued souf valley for drinking and irrigation purposes. To achieve this, 49 groundwater samples from the complex terminal were examined and treated concurrently with multivariate statistical methods, geostatistical modeling and the WQI (water quality index). Focusing on the physico-chemical parameters, Q mode clustering analysis detected four major water groups, where the mineralization augmented from group 1 to
... from group 1 to group 4. The hydro-chemical type was the same, Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 for all the groups. Calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, and gypsum would be the dominant reactions with the undersaturation of evaporates minerals, based on geochemical modeling, while the carbonate minerals are precipitating. Geostatistical analysis using ordinary Kriging demonstrated the exponential semi-variogram model fitted for EC (electrical conductivity), Ca2+ (calcium), Mg2+ (magnesium), K+ (potassium), HCO3− (bicarbonate), Cl− (chloride), and SO42− (sulfate). At the same time, the rational quadratic model was the best-fitted semi-variogram model for Na+ (sodium) and NO3− (nitrate). EC, SO42−, and NO3− have a strong spatial structure, while Ca2+, Na+, K+, and HCO3− have a moderate spatial structure. Moreover, there was a weak spatial structure for Mg2+ and Cl−. The WQI shows that CT (complex terminal groundwater aquifers) are not suitable for drinking and their quality for irrigation fluctuates from excellent to moderate quality.