Murine Insulinoma Cell-Conditioned Medium with ΒETA2/Neurod1 Transduction Efficiently Induces the Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into β-Like Cells both In Vitro and In Vivo
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), are multipotent and can differentiate into various cell types, including pancreatic β cells. Therefore, ADSCs present a potential cell source for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, current in vitro protocols are insufficient to induce fully matured insulin-producing β cells. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of overexpression of ΒETA2 (NeuroD1), a member of the
... helix-loop-helix transcription factor family, with murine insulinoma cell line-derived conditioned medium (MIN6-CM) to improve the differentiation capacity of ADSCs into insulin-producing cells. Method: Murine ADSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 mice, transduced with several transcriptional factors (TFs), and stable transfectants were established. MIN6-CM was prepared. Syngeneic recipient mice were rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin, and differentiated cells were transplanted under the kidney capsule of recipient mice. Next, blood glucose levels were monitored. Results: CM alone was sufficient to induce insulin mRNA expression in vitro. However, other TFs were not detected. ADSCs cultured with MIN6-CM induced insulin expressions in vitro, but other β cell-related TFs were been detected. However, BETA2 transduction in MIN6-CM resulted in robust expression of multiple β cell phenotypic markers. Moreover, insulin content analysis revealed insulin protein expression in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo transplant studies revealed the effectiveness of the simultaneous use of BETA2 transduction with the CM. Conclusion: These results suggest that the balance of cytokines and growth factors in addition to gene manipulation would benefit the efficient differentiation of ADSCs into pancreatic β cells. Our technology could provide a path to β cell differentiation and novel cell replacement-based therapies for T1DM.