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In the most extreme form of male infertility, the male partner is azoospermic. The advent of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has revolutionized our ability to treat azoospermia in both obstructive and non-obstructive cases. In obstructive azoospermia, it allows paternity without microsurgical reproductive tract reconstruction and also in cases where the reproductive tract is unreconstructable. In men with non-obstructive azoospermia, microdissectiondoi:10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2014.02.03 pmid:26816757 pmcid:PMC4708305 fatcat:yoflungu7zdiro5slecd2n5rci