Direct Contact Electroplating Sequence Without Initial Seed Layer for Bifacial TOPCon Solar Cell Metallization

Benjamin Grubel, Gisela Cimiotti, Christian Schmiga, Varun Arya, Bernd Steinhauser, Norbert Bay, Michael Passig, Damian Brunner, Markus Glatthaar, Sven Kluska
2021 IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics  
The metallization of bifacial tunneling oxide and passivating contacts (TOPCon) solar cells without initial metal seed layer by electroplating of Ni/Cu/Ag is demonstrated. The presented approach allows a lead-free metallization with narrow contact geometries and low contact resistivity. A metal plate provides electrical contact to the silicon via micrometer size laser contact openings and allows electroplating of bifacial TOPCon solar cells using industrial type inline plating tools without the
more » ... g tools without the need of a previously applied seed layer. Challenges such as direct contacting of silicon and dissolution of contacts are identified, and potential solutions are discussed. An optimized process sequence is developed and with this approach a solar cell efficiency of 22.5% is demonstrated on industrial bifacial TOPCon solar cells reaching the same level as the screen-printed reference solar cells. Index Terms-Forward bias plating (FBP), light induced plating (LIP), passivating contacts, silicon solar cells, tunneling oxide and passivating contacts (TOPCon).
doi:10.1109/jphotov.2021.3051636 fatcat:ivgnyqjuovblljb7blh2a2wacu