FORENSIC VETERINARY CHARACTERISTICS OF FRACTURES, FRACTURE DISLOCATIONS, DISLOCATIONS AND SUBLUXATIONS OF THE BONES IN THE ANIMAL SKELETONS QUALIFIED AS SEVERE INJURIES
Оlexander Parilovsky, Kharkiv State Zooveterinary Academy, Ukraine, Ivan Yatsenko, Kharkiv State Zooveterinary Academy, Ukraine
Priority areas for development of scientific research: domestic and foreign experience
The article presents forensic veterinary characteristics of fractures, fracture dislocations, dislocations and subluxations of skeletal bones in animals classified as severe injuries, including open and closed fractures of the upper and lower jaws, which lead to inability to receive normal food and water after healing; fracture or fracture dislocation of one or more thoracic or lumbar vertebrae along with spinal cord dysfunction or in the presence of clinically established severe shock;
... of the dorsal or ventral arch of the first cervical vertebra; fractures and fracture dislocations of arches from the second to the seventh cervical vertebrae, as well as fractures of the dentate gyrus of the second cervical vertebra, including or excluding violation of the integrity and function of the spinal cord; dislocations and subluxations of the cervical vertebrae with life-threatening phenomena; closed fractures of the hyoid bone, closed and open injuries of the endocrine glands, which are located in the neck (thyroid, parathyroid, thymus - in young animals) - with life-threatening phenomena; open fractures of the humerus, femur and tibia; pelvic fractures with life-threatening phenomena. These injuries are classified as severe due to the fact that they harm the health of the animal and are life-threatening at the time of infliction, or after a certain period of time. They lead to the emergence and development of life-threatening phenomena and without necessary and sufficient veterinary care may end in death. A bone fracture is a complete violation of its anatomical integrity. Fractures can be non-fragmentary with the division of the bone into two fragments, fragmentary, and traumatic epiphysiolysis (with separation of bone part). If traumatic dislocation is accompanied by a fracture of the articular end of the bone, this condition should be diagnosed as fracture dislocation. For forensic veterinary examination of animals in case of fractures of tubular bones, such important features as the type of deformation (displacement (cutting), bending, compression, torsion, tension), the direction of the fracture line, the depth of penetration of fragments, the place of application of fractures, differentiation of injury, establishing the characteristics of the subject, the sequence of injury and the mechanism of injury should be taken into account. The empirical basis of the study is the analysis of expert opinions on the results of forensic veterinary examinations on animal cruelty, conducted in the Bureau of Forensic Veterinary Research at Kharkiv State Zooveterinary Academy from 2010 to 2020, as well as at the laboratory of forensic research of the National Research Center "Institute of Forensic Science named after Professor M.S. Bokarius" of the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine from 2017 to 2020. The aim of the study was to provide forensic veterinary characteristics of fractures of the skeletal bones in animals qualified as serious injuries. Modern methods of scientific cognition are used, in particular: general scientific (system-structural analysis, logical-grammatical, modelling), as well as special (clinical and pathomorphological).