Hybrid Framework for Diabetic Retinopathy Stage Measurement Using Convolutional Neural Network and a Fuzzy Rules Inference System

Rawan Ghnemat
2022 Applied System Innovation  
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an increasingly common eye disorder that gradually damages the retina. Identification at the early stage can significantly reduce the severity of vision loss. Deep learning techniques provide detection for retinal images based on data size and quality, as the error rate increases with low-quality images and unbalanced data classes. This paper proposes a hybrid intelligent framework of a conventional neural network and a fuzzy inference system to measure the stages
more » ... DR automatically, Diabetic Retinopathy Stage Measurement using Conventional Neural Network and Fuzzy Inference System (DRSM-CNNFIS). The fuzzy inference used human experts' rules to overcome data dependency problems. At first, the Conventional Neural Network (CNN) model was used for feature extraction, and then fuzzy rules were used to measure diabetic retinopathy stage percentage. The framework is trained using images from Kaggle datasets (Diabetic Retinopathy Detection, 2022). The efficacy of this framework outperformed the other models with regard to accuracy, macro average precision, macro average recall, and macro average F1 score: 0.9281, 0.7142, 0.7753, and 0.7301, respectively. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed framework, without any segmentation process, has a similar performance for all the classes, while the other classification models (Dense-Net-201, Inception-ResNet ResNet-50, Xception, and Ensemble methods) have different levels of performance for each class classification.
doi:10.3390/asi5050102 fatcat:fficunjppfgzfdhtrj5ka2ya4m