Inferring Human Knowledgeability from Eye Gaze in Mobile Learning Environments [chapter]

Oya Celiktutan, Yiannis Demiris
2019 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
What people look at during a visual task reflects an interplay between ocular motor functions and cognitive processes. In this paper, we study the links between eye gaze and cognitive states to investigate whether eye gaze reveal information about an individual's knowledgeability. We focus on a mobile learning scenario where a user and a virtual agent play a quiz game using a hand-held mobile device. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to predict user's knowledgeability from
more » ... eye gaze using a noninvasive eye tracking method on mobile devices: we perform gaze estimation using front-facing camera of mobile devices in contrast to using specialised eye tracking devices. First, we define a set of eye movement features that are discriminative for inferring user's knowledgeability. Next, we train a model to predict users' knowledgeability in the course of responding to a question. We obtain a classification performance of 59.1% achieving human performance, using eye movement features only, which has implications for (1) adapting behaviours of the virtual agent to user's needs (e.g., virtual agent can give hints); (2) personalising quiz questions to the user's perceived knowledgeability.
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-11024-6_13 fatcat:siuzpfjqsfd7xhqutmgyrah444