Protein Kinase Cν/Protein Kinase D3 Nuclear Localization, Catalytic Activation, and Intracellular Redistribution in Response to G Protein-coupled Receptor Agonists
Journal of Biological Chemistry
The protein kinase D (PKD) family consists of three serine/threonine kinases: PKC/PKD, PKD2, and PKC/PKD3. Whereas PKD has been the focus of most studies, virtually nothing is known about the effect of G protein-coupled receptor agonists (GPCR) on the regulatory properties and intracellular distribution of PKD3. Consequently, we examined the mechanism that mediates its activation and intracellular distribution. GPCR agonists induced a rapid activation of PKD3 by a protein kinase C
... t pathway that leads to the phosphorylation of the activation loop of PKD3. Comparison of the steady-state distribution of endogenous or tagged PKD3 versus PKD and PKD2 in unstimulated cells indicated that whereas PKD and PKD2 are predominantly cytoplasmic, PKD3 is present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. This distribution of PKD3 results from its continuous shuttling between both compartments by a mechanism that requires a nuclear import receptor and a competent CRM1-nuclear export pathway. Cell stimulation with the GPCR agonist neurotensin induced a rapid and reversible plasma membrane translocation of PKD3 that is PKCdependent. Interestingly, the nuclear accumulation of PKD3 can be dramatically enhanced in response to its activation. Thus, this study demonstrates that the intracellular distribution of PKD isoenzymes are distinct, and suggests that their signaling properties are regulated by differential localization.