Homology-guided identification of a conserved motif linking the antiviral functions of IFITM3 to its oligomeric state [article]

Kazi Rahman, Charles A Coomer, Saliha Majdoul, Selena Ding, Sergi Padilla-Parra, Alex A. Compton
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins belong to the Dispanin/CD225 family and inhibit diverse virus infections. IFITM3 reduces membrane fusion between cells and virions through a poorly characterized mechanism. We identified a GxxxG motif in many CD225 proteins, including IFITM3 and proline rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2). Mutation of PRRT2, a regulator of neurotransmitter release, at glycine-305 was previously linked to paroxysmal neurological disorders in humans. Here,
more » ... e show that glycine-305 and the homologous site in IFITM3, glycine-95, drive protein oligomerization from within a GxxxG motif. Mutation of glycine-95 in IFITM3 disrupted its oligomerization and reduced its antiviral activity against Influenza A and HIV-1. The oligomerization-defective variant was used to reveal that IFITM3 promotes membrane rigidity in a glycine-95-dependent manner. Furthermore, a compound which counteracts virus inhibition by IFITM3, amphotericin B, prevented the IFITM3-mediated rigidification of membranes. Overall, these data suggest that IFITM3 oligomers inhibit virus-cell fusion by promoting membrane rigidity.
doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.096891 fatcat:4asjtbjrbrcrvigmhl5k73rvye