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Even if lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) can present as trivial haematochezia, massive hemorrhage with shock may occur. Acute massive LGIB is defined as bleeding of recent duration that originates beyond the ligament of Treitz and encompasses: passage of a large volume of red or maroon blood through the rectum, haemodynamic instability and shock, initial decrease in haematocrit level of 6 g/dL or less, transfusion of at least 2 U of packed red blood cells, bleeding that continues for 3pmid:23464779 fatcat:tbctdyabvrb75m7h653hrhllhi