Neuroprotective effects of SKF 10,047 in cultured rat cerebellar neurons and in gerbil global brain ischemia
and Purpose: Excitatory amino acids and their receptors are involved in mediating ischemic neuronal damage. The cr-agonists are believed to interact with the iV-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Therefore, we studied the neuroprotective, hypothermic, and motor deficit effects of the cr-agonist SKF 10,047 and the JV-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801. Methods: Neuroprotective effects were compared using an in vitro ischemia model of cultured rat cerebellar granule cells and the gerbil model of
... erbil model of global brain ischemia induced by 5 minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by 7 days of reperfusion. Results: In vitro, (+)MK-801 protected against 100 /tM glutamate with a 50% protective concentration of 30 nM, followed by (-)MK-801 (150 nM), cyclazocine (0.5 /tM), (+)SKF 10,047 (3.3 fiM), pentazocine (5 fiM), and (-)SKF 10,047 (10 fiM). In vivo, (+)SKF 10,047 pretreatment (60 ing/kg) or multiple postischemic treatments provided neuroprotection comparable with MK-801 pretreatment (10 mg/kg). When ischemic animals were administered the multiple dosing regimen of (+)SKF 10,047, no hypothermic effect was noted in the temporalis muscle over 4 hours' postischemia. Motor deficits monitored by a swing grid test showed that 50% recovery from (+)SKF 10,047 was 5.5 times faster than recovery from MK-801. Conclusions: These results are the first to report a hypothermia-free, in vivo neuroprotective effect of (+)SKF 10,047, a prototypical drug of the o-agonist class. (Strolie 1992;23:414-419) KEY WORDS • cerebral ischemia • neuroprotection • gerbils • rats O f the many noncompetitive antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, 12 MK-801 has been found to be the most efficacious compound interacting at this site. In binding studies, MK-801 has been found to have the highest affinity for ligands binding to the NMDA channel both in brain membranes 34 and in vivo. 5 In neuroprotection studies, MK-801 has been found to protect striatal and hippocampal neurons against damage induced by ischemic insult 6 " 8 or exogenous glutamate or NMDA, 910 and at lower doses than other comparable compounds. This holds for in vitro cell culture models as well, with regard to inhibition of NMDA-modulated second messenger systems 11 and protection of neurons and astrocytes 12-16 However, use of MK-801 is not without side effects, the most noticeable being the psychotomimetic effect, probably due to binding to the phencyclidine (PCP) binding site. 31718 In addition, there are reports of neurotoxicity, 19 stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis, 20 and oncogene induction, 21 suggesting a mitogenic action. Because drug discrimination studies have shown that MK-801 causes generalization to most other non-From the Department of Pharmacology, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, Pa.