In vitro synergistic potentials of novel antibacterial combination therapies against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
Background: The antibiotics generally used in farm animals are rapidly losing their effectiveness all over the world as bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. Like some other pathogenic bacteria multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) are also frequently found in animals and humans which poses a major public health concern. New strategies are needed to block the development of resistance and to prolong the life of traditional antibiotics. Thus,
... is study aimed to increase the efficacy of existing antibiotics against S. Typhimurium by combining them with opportunistic phenolic compounds gallic acid (GA), epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and hamamelitannin. Fractional inhibitory concentration indexes (FICI) of phenolic compound-antibiotic combinations against S. Typhimurium were determined. Based on the FICI and clinical importance, 1 combination (GA and ceftiofur) was selected for evaluating its effects on the virulence factors of this bacterium. Viability of Rattus norvegicus (IEC-6) cell in presence of this antibacterial combination was evaluated.Results: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of GA, epigallocatechin and hamamelitannin found against different strains of S. Typhimurium were 256, (512–1024), and (512–1024) μg/mL, respectively. Synergistic antibacterial effect was obtained from the combination of erythromycin-epicatechin gallate (FICI: 0.50) against S. Typhimurium. Moreover, additive effects (FICI: 0.502–0.750) were obtained from 16 combinations against this bacterium. The time-kill assay and ultrastructural morphology showed that GA-ceftiofur combination more efficiently inhibited the growth of S. Typhimurium compared to individual antimicrobials. Biofilm viability, and swimming and swarming motilities of S. Typhimurium in presence of GA-ceftiofur combination were more competently inhibited than individual antimicrobials. Viabilities of IEC-6 cells were more significantly enhanced by GA-ceftiofur combinations than these antibacterials alone.Conclusions: This study suggests that GA-ceftiofur combination can be potential medication to treat S. Typhimurium-associated diarrhea and prevent S. Typhimurium-associated blood-stream infections (e.g.: fever) in farm animals, and ultimately its transmission from animal to human. Further in vivo study to confirm these effects and safety profiles in farm animal should be undertaken for establishing these combinations as medications.