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AbstractWe explore the driving of LEDs by untransformed AC. An extreme case is driving 1.9 V threshold (red) LEDs with UK mains, peak voltage 325 V. Commonly, driving is by transformed, rectified (DC) supply with a series resistor (where a significant fraction of the power is wasted) to limit current in the LED. With AC, one can instead reactively limit to a maximum current safe for an LED by employing a series capacitive impedance. Cheaper and simpler supplies can thus be employed in somedoi:10.1038/s41598-020-80617-2 pmid:33441881 fatcat:o2syex5mz5f7zeafum7gucvvfa