Estratégias de enfrentamento do tratamento quimioterápico na perspectiva de crianças com câncer hospitalizadas
PACCIULIO, A. M. Strategies for coping with chemotherapy treatment from the perspective of hospitalized children with cancer. 2012. 120 p. Master"s thesis -University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing, Ribeirão Preto, 2012. Child-juvenile cancer treatment is extensive and demands frequent hospitalizations, which expose the children to invasive procedures and separate them from the people, objects and environments they are used to. Chemotherapy is one of the most used treatments
... st used treatments in cancer management and, although effective, it provokes countless collateral effects and demands the restructuring of the sick children"s daily life. Therefore, care delivery should be considered comprehensively, taking into account not only the biological aspects of the disease and its treatment, but also its emotional, spiritual, school, social, play and leisure repercussions. With a view to mitigating the stressful experiences and facilitating the children"s adaptation to the new daily life, they should be helped to develop strategies to cope with the situation. Thus, this research aimed to identify and understand the strategies for coping with chemotherapy among children with cancer during hospitalization. An exploratory research with qualitative data analysis was developed, involving 10 children between seven and 12 years of age, diagnosed with cancer, who had been undergoing chemotherapy for at least three months and were hospitalized at the pediatric hospitalization unit of a teaching hospital during data collection. Approval was obtained from the hospital"s institutional review board. For data collection, semistructured interviews were held, using puppets as a plaything to facilitate interaction and communication. As a complementary technique, field notes were made and data were collected on the disease and treatment history from the files. Data were subject to inductive thematic analysis. The results evidenced strategies to cope with the collateral effects of chemotherapy; with the pain and invasive procedures; with the lack of activity and uncertainty on treatment success. These strategies include: knowledge and understanding of the diagnosis and its treatment; affective bond between the health team and the child; pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures to relieve the nausea, vomiting, baldness and pain; foodthe pleasure control of the situation grants; distraction and gamesthe best part of hospitalization; religion and the hope of cure. This study identified that, despite the suffering during hospitalizations to undergo chemotherapy, the children demonstrated that they construct positive bonds with the health team and continue wanting and willing to play, which approach the hospitalization experiences to the daily life before the illness, disclosing that healthy aspects are maintained despite the disease. The children developed strategies to cope with the adversities of chemotherapy in hospital, which can be useful when shared with other children in the same condition. Finally, knowing and understanding valid strategies to cope with chemotherapy, from the perspective of hospitalized children with cancer, help health professionals to mobilize resources from the institution itself, the children themselves and the health team, with a view to enhancing the use of these strategies, making treatment as less traumatic as possible. Descriptors: Neoplasms. Child. Drug therapy. Hospitalization. Play and playthings.