Genome-wide blood DNA methylation analysis in patients with delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage
Little is known about the epigenetic changes associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) pathogenesis after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Here, we investigated genome-wide DNA methylation profiles specifically associated with DCI, which is a major contributor to poor clinical outcomes. An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were conducted in 40 SAH patients (DCI, n = 13; non-DCI, n = 27). A replication study using bisulfite modification and
... dification and methylation-specific PCR was further performed in 36 patients (DCI, n = 12; non-DCI, n = 24). The relative degree of methylation was described as the median and 25th-75th percentile. No significant differences in clinical characteristics between DCI and non-DCI groups were observed. Among the top 10 differentially methylated genes analyzed via EWAS, two aberrantly methylated CpG sites of cg00441765 (INSR gene) and cg11464053 (CDHR5 gene) were associated with decreased mRNA expression (2-ΔCt). They include INSR [0.00020 (0.00012-0.00030) in DCI vs. 0.00050 (0.00030-0.00068) in non-DCI] and CDHR5 [0.114 (0.053-0.143) in DCI vs. 0.170 (0.110-0.212) in non-DCI]. Compared with non-DCI cases, patients with DCI exhibited an increased degree of methylation in the replication study: INSR, 0.855 (0.779-0.913) in DCI vs. 0.582 (0.565-0.689) in non-DCI; CDHR5, 0.786 (0.708-0.904) in DCI vs. 0.632 (0.610-0.679) in non-DCI. Hypermethylation of two novel genes, INSR and CDHR5 may serve as a biomarker for early detection of DCI following SAH.