Reduced scan time and superior image quality with 3D flow MRI compared to 4D flow MRI for hemodynamic evaluation of the Fontan pathway

Friso M. Rijnberg, Hans C. van Assen, Joe F. Juffermans, Lucia J. M. Kroft, Pieter J. van den Boogaard, Patrick J. H. de Koning, Mark G. Hazekamp, Séline F. S. van der Woude, Evangeline G. Warmerdam, Tim Leiner, Heynric B. Grotenhuis, Jelle J. Goeman (+3 others)
2021 Scientific Reports  
AbstractLong scan times prohibit a widespread clinical applicability of 4D flow MRI in Fontan patients. As pulsatility in the Fontan pathway is minimal during the cardiac cycle, acquiring non-ECG gated 3D flow MRI may result in a reduction of scan time while accurately obtaining time-averaged clinical parameters in comparison with 2D and 4D flow MRI. Thirty-two Fontan patients prospectively underwent 2D (reference), 3D and 4D flow MRI of the Fontan pathway. Multiple clinical parameters were
more » ... ssed from time-averaged flow rates, including the right-to-left pulmonary flow distribution (main endpoint) and systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow (SPCF). A ten-fold reduction in scan time was achieved [4D flow 15.9 min (SD 2.7 min) and 3D flow 1.6 min (SD 7.8 s), p < 0.001] with a superior signal-to-noise ratio [mean ratio of SNRs 1.7 (0.8), p < 0.001] and vessel sharpness [mean ratio 1.2 (0.4), p = 0.01] with 3D flow. Compared to 2D flow, good–excellent agreement was shown for mean flow rates (ICC 0.82–0.96) and right-to-left pulmonary flow distribution (ICC 0.97). SPCF derived from 3D flow showed good agreement with that from 4D flow (ICC 0.86). 3D flow MRI allows for obtaining time-averaged flow rates and derived clinical parameters in the Fontan pathway with good–excellent agreement with 2D and 4D flow, but with a tenfold reduction in scan time and significantly improved image quality compared to 4D flow.
doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85936-6 pmid:33753790 fatcat:lfxsrdlt5bccvdk6qxoj7at3mm