Fluctuation damping of isolated, oscillating Bose-Einstein condensates
Physical Review A
Experiments on the nonequilibrium dynamics of an isolated Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a magnetic double-well trap exhibit a puzzling divergence: While some show dissipation-free Josephson oscillations, others find strong damping. Such damping in isolated BECs cannot be understood on the level of the coherent Gross-Pitaevskii dynamics. Using the Keldysh functional-integral formalism, we describe the time-dependent system dynamics by means of a multi-mode BEC coupled to fluctuations
... particle excitations) beyond the Gross-Pitaevskii saddle point. We find that the Josephson oscillations excite an excess of fluctuations when the effective Josephson frequency, ω̃_J, is in resonance with the effective fluctuation energy, ε̃_m, where both, ω̃_J and ε̃_m, are strongly renormalized with respect to their noninteracting values. Evaluating and using the model parameters for the respective experiments describes quantitatively the presence or absence of damping.