Experimental Investigation on Yield Stress of Water-in-Heavy Crude Oil Emulsions in Order to Improve Pipeline Flow
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology
An experimental study on yield stress of water-in-heavy crude oil emulsions has been carried out by using a HAAKE RS6000 Rheometer with a vane-type rotor. Several factors such as oil volume fraction, shear rate, temperature, and emulsifying agent on the yield stress of emulsions were investigated. Zero shear viscosity of heavy crude oil was 6000 mPas at 30 C, with a density 955 kg/m 3 . This study shows that the yield stress increases linearly with the increasing shear rate, and displays an
... and displays an exponential decay with increasing the temperature and oil volume fraction. Although the addition of emulsifying agent enhanced the stability of the emulsion, to some extent it also increased the yield stress, especially for the emulsions with high oil volume fractions. Therefore, to reduce the start-up force for the pipeline transport of water-in-heavy crude oil emulsions, the starting rate should be decreased, temperature increased, or oil volume fraction increased. These results are helpful to improve the transportation of water-in-heavy crude oil in pipeline.