The Angular Expansion and Distance of the Planetary Nebula BD +30°3639

Jianyang Li, J. Patrick Harrington, Kazimierz J. Borkowski
2002 Astronomical Journal  
The WFPC2 camera aboard the HST was used to obtain images of the planetary nebula BD+30 3639 at two epochs separated by 5.663 years. The expansion of the nebula in the H-alpha and [N II] bands has been measured using several methods. Detailed expansion maps for both emission lines were constructed from nearly 200 almost independent features. There is good agreement between the (independent) H-alpha and [N II] proper motions. The central velocity split is measured from the STIS echelle spectra
more » ... S echelle spectra of the C II] 2326A multiplet to be +/-36.3 km/s at a position angle of 99 degrees. The angular displacement along this slit position was measured to be 4.25 mas/yr at 2".47 from the center. We constructed a tilted ellipsoidal shell model by fitting the radio brightness variation of the 5 and 15 GHz VLA observations, and making use of the ground-based echelle spectra from Bryce & Mellema (1999), to estimate distance. Our model has an axial ratio of 1.56, is inclined to the line of sight by 9.7 degrees, and exhibits an expansion in the plane of the sky which is 2/3 that in the radial direction, leading to a distance of 1.2 kpc. Not all the kinematic data fits this simple model, so the distance must still be regarded as uncertain. Based on the recent model atmosphere of Crowther et al. (2002), a distance of 1.2 kpc implies a stellar luminosity of 4250 L_sun. The kinematic age of the nebula varies somewhat from region to region; a good average value is 800 years, while the expansion along the position of the echelle slit gives about 600 years.
doi:10.1086/340078 fatcat:o2zkd5a7ejbyhkemnoglxniujy