CO2 transformation to multicarbon products by photocatalysis and electrocatalysis
Materials Today Advances
The excessively high atmospheric CO 2 concentration is associated with rapidly evolving industrial, commercial, and residential uses of fossil fuels, which has caused global warming and climate crisis. Photocatalytic or electrocatalytic reduction of CO 2 into value-added hydrocarbon fuels has provided a promising and sustainable solution to addressing these issues simultaneously. Multicarbon products (C 2þ ) with higher energy densities are generally desirable in fueling transportation and
... sportation and other industries. However, the low selectivity and subsequently a higher cost toward these C 2þ products have severely limited their larger scale production. Here, we review the strategies of controlling the C 2þ product selectivity during the photocatalytic and electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction reaction (CRR) processes with their catalytic reaction mechanisms. This review starts with the fundamentals on photocatalytic and electrocatalytic CRR, which is followed by discussions about how reaction mechanisms and process pathways affect the C 2þ product selectivity and the main strategies to improve both photocatalysis and electrocatalysis systems. Finally, some outlook for future work and challenges in improving the C 2þ product selectivity is included.