Scientific News in Washington

1888 Science  
Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid--seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non--commercial purposes. Read more about Early Journal
more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. 246 SCIENCE. SCIENCE. stood. I have said that we must obtain the complete mythologies of each linguistic stock of America, and we must work until we have shown what the characters of the myths of each stock really represent. This done, each stock is to be compared with that most nearly related to it, and then a general comparison of all. The final result will be a scientific American mythology. If the Aryan field is worked in a similarly careful manner, we shall have a complete Celtic, Teutonic, Greek, Slavonic, Persian, and other mythologies, and, finally, Aryan mythology as a whole. " There still remain Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands, where there are materials of the highest value for the completion of mythologic science and the history of the human mind,-materials which are perishing every day, and which will never be collected if missionaries and travellers are to collect them. You could no more make a collection of myths through the agency of missionaries and travellers than you could make a geological survey of the United States if you depended on the voluntary and intermittent efforts of missionaries and travellers, some having, but most not having, definite ideas about geology or topography. " Though mythology is as nothing on Wall Street in comparison with geology, the time, I think, is coring when a good number of men will place it higher; because mythology is to the history of the human mind what geology is to the history of the earth,documentary evidence of the character of its different epochs. Even now there are few persons who would say that the earth on which he treads is better than man. You remember the words of the great poet,-' The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, And, like this insubstantial pageant, faded, Leave not a rack behind.' "When that time comes, it will be found that the only real, the only permanent, results achieved on earth were those relating to the human mind." SCIENTIFIC NEWS IN WASHINGTON. Phonographs, Graphophones, etc.; Curious Experiments with Jets of Water. -Replenishing Rivers with Shad. -More about the Water-Spouts. -United States Fish Commission Work on the Pacific Coast. Instruments for Recording and Reproducing Speech. PROF. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL read, at the last meeting of the Fortnightly Club, a paper upon recent inventions for recording and reproducing speech, exhibiting, to illustrate what he said, some of the latest ancl most curious devices that have been produced. He explained the nomenclature of the subject as he thought it ought to be used, by saying that a phonograph is an instrument for making a record of speech; phonogram, the record so made; and graphophone, an instrument for reproducing speech from a phonogram. In some cases the phonograph and graphophone are the same in most of their parts, but in many they are entirely different. Professor Bell exhibited the graphophone, of which a number are now in practical use, and which, in its essential parts, is similar to Edison's phonograph. The record is made on a cylinder covered with wax or paraffine,. and the speech is reproduced by conducting the sounds to a diaphragm connected to an open trumpet-shaped instrument, or, by wires to devices placed upon the ears, vibrations corresponding to those that were produced when the record was made. A modification of these instruments was shown, in which the record was made upon a pasteboard disk revolved upon a shaft in a horizontal plane. The upper surface of the disk is covered with wax, upon which a similar impression to that on the wax-covered cylinder is made by a stylus connected with a diaphragm which is caused to vibrate by the sound of the voice. The recorcl is a
fatcat:llt7dse5izftboyitnrooqgdf4