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Managing product information for product items during their whole lifetime is challenging, especially during their usage and end-of-life phases. The main difficulty is to maintain a communication link between the product item and its associated information as the product item moves over organizational borders and between different users. As network access will typically not be continuous during the whole product-item lifecycle, it is necessary to embed at least a globally unique productdoi:10.1080/09511920500069507 fatcat:z5cp7yhksrb27mj4pbnyvlrx2y