Production of Tyramine in "Moromi" Mash during Soy Sauce Fermentation
醤油もろみ中のチラミンの生成

Akihiro IBE, Setsuko TABATA, Yuki SADAMASU, Akiko YASUI, Toshiko SHIMOI, Miyoko ENDOH, Kazuo SAITO
2003 Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi  
The concentrations of 7 non-volatile amines, tyramine (Tym), histamine (Him), phenethylamine (Phm), putrescine (Put), cadaverine (Cad), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) in the liquid part of "moromi" mash during soy sauce fermentation were studied. These amines, except for Him and Cad, were detected during fermentation by the conventional production method in the laboratory. Put and Spd were detected at the beginning, and Tym, Phm and Spm appeared later; these 5 amines increased gradually
more » ... reased gradually during the fermentation. Put, Spd, Spm and Cad were present in the raw starting material for soy sauce; thus, Tym and Phm were produced by the fermentation. When "moromi" mash was added to 1iquid medium and cultivated, Tym was detected in some "moromi" mash and the other amines were not detected. Tym-producing bacterial strains were isolated from the liquid culture media of Tym-positive "moromi" mash. The Tym-producing strain was a gram-positive coccus. The conditions for production of amines by Tym-producing bacterial strains were examined. These strains grew and produced tyramine under various conditions, which may occur during soy sauce fermentation. Namely, Tym was produced at pH 5ῌ10, at salt concentrations of less than 8ΐ, under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. During soy sauce fermentation, it is assumed that Tym would be produced by these strains during the early stages of soy sauce aging within a short period when the salt concentration and pH conditions are optimal for growth. Based on the bacteriological properties, the strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium. With the exception of Phm and Him, which did not exist in the starting raw material, non-volatile amines (including Put, Cad, Spd and Spm) were not produced and microorganisms producing them are not believed to be present during "moromi" fermentation. ῍ ῌ ̱ΏῸ̲ (Tym)ῌ ῶ̱Ὸ̲ (Him) ̯̯̯Q̳QQQ Q̰Ὸ̲̯Q ῌ QQQQ̯̯̮QQῚ̰QQῙ̰ῖ῟̮ ῨQQQQ̯QQQQ῟Ῐ῝QῨ̰̰ῠ̮ῌ Q̯ῶ̱Ὸ ̲̯̰´ῼ῭῏ΐQQQ̯Q῾QQ῟Ῐ῝QQ QQ῏Q ῟̯῝̮̰ 1) ῍ QQQ̯̳ῢ̰̰Q̳QQQQ̰Ὸ̲̮ ̮Q ῍ QQQQQ̲QQQῲ̲̱῏῎ 169ῌ0073 QQQQQQ QQQ 3ῌ24ῌ1 ̯QQ̯ῧ̰̯̮Ῡ῞̯̯̮ῌ QQῌ QQQQ̯̮̮῝̯ QQ QQQQ̯ ̰̰QQQ̯ῧ῝ῥQQῗ̰ ̰ 2)ῐ4) ῍ ῖ̰Ῠ̰Ὸ̲̯Q῞ῥQ̯ Him, Tym ̯̯̯Ὺ̱ῴ̰ '̱ῦΌ̰Ὸ̲ΎῬ΅̱῏ῳQ ῐ̯̯̮̰Q̯̲ῐQ ̰QῘ῝̮̰ Q̯QῘ῝Q̮̲Q̰̳ῡῚ῍ Tym ̰̳ῤ̱῏ῌ ῬῺῷ̰̯̯̯QQ̰̳QῘΊῖ῟̯ῧῩ QQῌ QQ̲ῌ Q̮̮Q̯̯QQ̯QQ̯̳̰ῖ῟ῥ῍Q ῗ̰῝̮̰ 1)ῐ4) ῍ ῢΊῌ Him ̯QQ̯QQῚ̰Q̯̰Ὸ Q Q Vol. 44, No. 5 220
doi:10.3358/shokueishi.44.220 fatcat:zjea4c575janthy4x7mqyitijy