Quantification of Everest region glacier velocities between 1992 and 2002, using satellite radar interferometry and feature tracking
Journal of Glaciology
Many glacier snouts in the Himalaya are known to be stagnant and exhibiting low surface gradients, conditions that are conducive to the formation of glacial lakes impounded either by the terminal moraine or by the remnant glacier snout. In this study, we use interferometry and feature-tracking techniques to quantify the extent of stagnation in 20 glaciers across the Everest (Qomolangma; Sagarmatha) region, and subsequently we examine the relationship between local catchment topography and ice
... namics. The results show that only one of the studied glaciers, Kangshung Glacier, is dynamic across its entire surface, with flow rates greater than 40 m a−1 being recorded in high-elevation areas. Twelve other glaciers show some evidence of flow, but are generally characterized by long, stagnant tongues, indicating widespread recession and in situ decay. The remaining seven glaciers show no evidence of flow in any of the available datasets. Hypsometric data suggest that catchment topography plays an important role in controlling glacier flow regimes, with those fed by wide, high-altitude accumulation areas showing the most extensive active ice, and those originating at low elevations exhibiting large areas of stagnant ice. Surface profiles extracted from a SRTM digital elevation model indicate that stagnant snouts are characterized by very low (<2°) surface angles and that down-wasting is the prevalent ablation pattern in the study area.