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The rendering process consists of crushing and heating animal remains to produce by-products. The U.S. produces approximately 30 billion pounds of inedible animal by-products annually, exporting a market value of US$ 1.5 billion. Benefits of the rendering process include reducing total waste material, and helping the livestock industry stay competitive over vegetable protein manufacturers. However, the rendering process can have a negative effect on the environment through the emission ofdoi:10.1016/j.cej.2005.03.006 fatcat:5v6oqwmoerhd7m7yld3453jvc4