R. C. Temple, H. Fielding Hall
1909 Man  
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more » ... 9. conceive that many theorists have overrun the scent, as when Orpheus is recognised for a "sex totem" of the Thracians The complaint is that M. Renel, M. G. Reinach, M. Amelineau (for Egypt), and others, " have found out Mr. Frazer's book of 1887," and have " used the facts as they use historic documents." By " historic documents " I meani inscriptions, charters, contemporary correspondence, and so forth. In prehistoric times, and among savages, these are not-to be found; we must make the most of what we have, and, unlike the savants censured, must keep abreast of discoveries in. custom an(d tradition; and it is absolutely essential, as M. van Gennep insists, that we shouild employ a definite terminology; not tossing about " clan," " tribe," and " family " at random; nor using " totem " for dozens of things perfectly different aind distinct ; for " clan masks," g'ods, the familiar of each individual, and so forth. The word "clan" ought not to be used at all in matters totemic, and " totem " ought not to be used for enseigne protectrice. The Napoleonic eagles were not totems ! M. Loret and M. AnMelineau are criticised for making confusions; for speaking of what the Euahlayi call the yunbeai of the individual, as if it were the same thing as the dhe of the totem-kin. I can agree almost wholly with M. van Gennep's " Four Principles of Totemism," but scarcely with the second, "the belief is expressed in the religious life by positive rites," for I am not aware of positive religious totemic rites anmong most of the South-East Australian and North American tribes whose totemism seems to me most normal. With M. van Gennep I recognise that such terms as sibokisme and sulaisme wotuld be useful, and all otlher sciences have what a Scottish critic of psychology calls their "jarg,on." To say " jargon" " is to be -very popular, yet even games have their technical terms. M. van Gennep proposes an international congress to settle the terins. Meanwhile eacll writer might explicitly define the meaning which he attaches to the terms he employs ;. say, in the study of Australian marriage, the word " class." M. van Gennep applauds Mr. Hartland's valuable paper (Folk-Lore, Vol. XI, pp. 22-37), and thinks that it would have been useful to M. Amelineau, in his Prolegomenes a i'tude de la Religion egyptienne (1908). That totemism is " primitive" no one can really maintaini, as M. van Gennep insists, but among, some tribes it exists without ancestor worship, and appears to be earlier. The word "primitive" might as well be expunged from the scientific vocabulary. M. van Genrnep also stigmatises the vague way in which the word " taboni " is used. I must differ from M. van Genuep when he says, " Totemism seems " to have for its aim, at least in some groupements, the restriction of the depopulation of animals and vegetables." He appears to refer to the Arunta "close-time," by which, as I understand, the members of each totem-group decide when the "season" for each plant or animal opens. This appears to me to be a late utilisationi of totemic idcas, not the original but du totemisme. But M. van Gennep may not mean to assert anything about the original aim of totemism, he has no tlheory of the origin of totemism, and he can have no theory of its aim. A. LANG. Religion. Hall.
doi:10.2307/2839817 fatcat:uuqch2arbnhqpewak7zfkdunqa