Biotransformation and removal of heavy metals: a review of phytoremediation and microbial remediation assessment on contaminated soil

C.U. Emenike, B. Jayanthi, P. Agamuthu, S.H. Fauziah
2018 Environmental Reviews  
Environmental deterioration is caused by a variety of pollutants; however, heavy metals are often a major issue. Development and globalization has now also resulted in such pollution occurring in developing societies, including Africa and Asia. This review explores the geographical outlook of soil pollution with heavy metals. Various approaches used to remedy metal-polluted soils include physical, chemical, and biological systems, but many of these methods are not economically viable, and they
more » ... y viable, and they do not ensure restoration without residual effects. This review evaluates the diverse use of plants and microbes in biotransformation and removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil. Mechanisms on how natural processes utilizing plants (phytoremediation) and microorganisms (bioremediation) remove or reduce heavy metals from soil at various levels are presented. This review concludes that remediation technologies are necessary for the recovery of metal-contaminated environments and the prevention of continuous environmentally toxic impacts on living organisms.
doi:10.1139/er-2017-0045 fatcat:ufhjqqt7rzh7velrtvl6rh5mnq