Review of emerging contaminant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate: Environmental occurrence, exposure, and risks to organisms and human health
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP) is a halogen-containing organophosphorus chemical that is widely employed in various consumer products with a high production volume. As an additive flame retardant (FR), TDCPP tends to be released into the environment through multiple routes. It is ubiquitous in environmental media, biotic matrixes, and humans, and thus is deemed to be an emerging environmental contaminant. To date, significant levels of TDCPP and its primary diester metabolite,
... ter metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate, have been detected in human samples of seminal plasma, breast milk, blood plasma, placenta, and urine, thereby causing wide concern about the potential human health effects resulting from exposure to this chemical. Despite the progress in research on TDCPP over the past few years, we are still far from fully understanding the environmental behavior and health risks of this emerging contaminant. Thus, this paper critically reviews the environmental occurrence, exposure, and risks posed by TDCPP to organisms and human health among the literature published in the last decade. It has been demonstrated that TDCPP induces acute-, nerve-, developmental-, reproductive-, hepatic-, nephron-, and endocrine-disrupting toxicity in animals, which has caused increasing concern worldwide. Simultaneously, TDCPP induces cytotoxicity by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species and inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in multiple human cell lines in vitro, and also causes endocrine-disrupting effects, including reproductive dysfunction and adverse pregnancy outcomes, according to human epidemiology studies. This review not only provides a better understanding of the behavior of this emerging contaminant in the environment, but also enhances the comprehension of the health risks posed by TDCPP exposure to ecosystems and humans.