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In three-dimensional concurrent engineering context, product, process, and supply chain designs are approached by the imperative of concurrency principle. The imperative of concurrency proposes product architecture and supply chain architecture conducted simultaneously. The detailed product design and production process design are conducted simultaneously. While manufacturing system design is conducted simultaneously with logistic system design. This study concerns on integrating productiondoi:10.23917/jiti.v21i2.19731 fatcat:xfbw7z3345dlzhtvpezqnouyae