Mechanism of Dynamic Bias Temperature Instability in p- and nMOSFETs: The Effect of Pulse Waveform
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
The waveform effect on dynamic bias temperature instability (BTI) is systematically studied for both p-and nMOSFETs with ultrathin SiON gate dielectrics by using a modified direct-current current-voltage method to monitor the stress-induced interface trap density. Interface traps are generated at the inversion gate bias (negative for pMOSFETs and positive for nMOSFETs) and are partially recovered at the zero or accumulation gate bias. Devices under high-frequency bipolar stress exhibit a
... cant frequency-dependent degradation enhancement. Ap proximate analytical expressions of the interface trap generation for devices under the static, unipolar, or bipolar stress are derived in the framework of conventional reaction-diffusion (R-D) model and with an assumption that additional interface traps (N * it ) are generated in each cycle of the dynamic stress. The additional interface trap generation is proposed to originate from the transient trapped carriers in the states at and/or near the SiO 2 /Si interface upon the gate voltage reversal from the accumulation bias to the inversion bias quickly, which may accelerate dissociation of Si-H bonds at the beginning of the stressing phase in each cycle. Hence, N * it depends on the interface-state density, the voltage at the relaxation (i.e., accumulation) bias, and the transition time of the stress waveform (the fall time for pMOSFETs and the rise time for nMOSFETs). The observed dynamic BTI behaviors can be perfectly explained by this modified R-D model. Index Terms-Bias temperature instability (BTI), direct-current current-voltage (DCIV), dynamic stress, interface states, interface trap generation, MOSFET, reaction-diffusion (R-D) model, reliability.