Mutagenesis by 8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methylangelicin photoadducts in mouse fibroblasts: mutations at cross-linkable sites induced by offoadducts as well as cross-links
Psoralens are used clinically in the treatment of several skin diseases, including psoriasis, vitiligo, and cutaneous T cell lymphoma. However, psoralen treatment has been associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. To elucidate molecular events that may play a role in the psoralen-related carcinogenesis, we examined psoralen-induced mutagenesis in a mouse fibroblast cell line carrying a recoverable, chromosomally integrated lambda phage shuttle vector. Using the
... pF gene as a mutation reporter gene, we determined the spectrum of mutations induced by photoactivation of 8-methoxypsoralen and of 5-methylangelicin. Both psoralens generated predominately T:A to A:T and some T:A to G:C transversions. Most of the mutations occurred at either 5' TpA or 5' ApT sites, both of which are conducive to interstrand cross-link formation. However, 5-methylangelicin produces only monoadducts, whereas 8-methoxypsoralen generated 20% cross-links and 80% monoadducts under the conditions of our experiments, as measured by direct HPLC analysis of the DNA from the treated cells. Although most of the mutations occurred at potentially cross-linkable sites, these results implicate monoadducts, as well as cross-links, as critical premutagenic lesions in psoralen-treated mammalian cells. These findings may help in the identification of carcinogenic changes induced by psoralen, and they may aid in the improved design of psoralen-based treatment regimens in the future.