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One possible explanation for the substantial organismal differences between humans and chimpanzees is that there have been changes in gene regulation. Given what is known about transcription factor binding sites, this motivates the following probability question: given a 1000 nucleotide region in our genome, how long does it take for a specified six to nine letter word to appear in that region in some individual? Stone and Wray [Mol. Biol. Evol. 18 (2001) 1764--1770] computed 5,950 years as thedoi:10.1214/105051606000000619 fatcat:baiigrepfbhaxdtrfzjoihc7ze