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In order to handle inconsistent knowledge bases in a reasonable way, one needs a logic which allows nontrivial inconsistent theories. Logics of this sort are called paraconsistent. One of the oldest and best known approaches to the problem of designing useful paraconsistent logics is da Costa's approach, which seeks to allow the use of classical logic whenever it is safe to do so, but behaves completely differently when contradictions are involved. da Costa's approach has led to the family ofdoi:10.1016/j.ijar.2006.06.011 fatcat:nug7qc45e5hpdlq3p6iftedatu